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Tutorial FRENCH TUTORIAL lesson 1

Discussion in 'Foreign Language Discussion' started by sakura0487, Jul 7, 2009.

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  1. sakura0487

    sakura0487

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    Starting today, i'm going to teach you guys how to speak french slowly, but surely.. Many people say that french is one of the most difficult languages in the world, and i'll say to you, it is. Foreigners have difficulty pronouncing the french's letter 'R' errrrr... And some people, with 'Q'. Orthographe, is the most important in writing french, so you should be attentive with this one. I'll start with the alphabet, but first of all i'm going to give you some FRENCH BASIC PHRASES...:thumb:

    Bonjour
    /bɔ̃ʒuʀ/
    Hello / Good day Bonsoir
    /bɔ̃swaʀ/
    Good evening Bonne nuit
    /bɔn nɥi/
    Good night Salut
    /saly/
    Hi / Bye Au revoir
    /ɔʀ(ə)vwaʀ/
    Goodbye S'il vous plaît
    /sil vu plɛ/
    Please Merci (beaucoup)
    /mɛʀsi boku/
    Thank you (very much) De rien. / Je vous en prie.
    /də ʀjɛ̃/ /ʒəvu zɑ̃ pri/
    You're welcome. Bienvenu(e)
    /bjɛ̃vəny/
    Welcome (also You're welcome in Quebec) A tout à l'heure / A plus tard
    /a tu ta lœʀ/ /a ply taʀ/
    See you later A bientôt
    /a bjɛ̃to/
    See you soon A demain
    /a dəmɛ̃/
    See you tomorrow Désolé(e)!
    /dezɔle/
    Sorry! Pardon !
    /paʀdɔ̃/
    Excuse me! Allons-y!
    /alɔ̃ zi/
    Let's go! Comment allez-vous ?
    /kɔmɑ̃ tale vu/
    How are you? (formal) Ça va ?
    /sa va/
    How are you? (informal) Très bien / mal / pas mal
    /tʀɛ bjɛ̃/ /mal/ /pa mal/
    Very good / bad / not bad Je vais bien
    /ʒə ve bjɛ̃/
    I'm fine. Ça va.
    /sa va/
    I'm fine. (informal) Oui / non
    /wi/ /nɔ̃/
    Yes / no Comment vous appelez-vous ?
    /kɔmɑ̃ vu zaple vu/
    What's your name? (formal) Tu t'appelles comment ?
    /ty tapɛl kɔmɑ̃/
    What's your name? (informal) Je m'appelle...
    /ʒə mapɛl/
    My name is... Enchanté(e)
    /ɑ̃ʃɑ̃te/
    Nice to meet you. Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle
    /məsjø/ /madam/ /madwazɛl/
    Mister, Misses, Miss Mesdames et Messieurs
    /medam/ /mesjø/
    Ladies and gentlemen Vous êtes d'où ?
    /vu zɛt du/
    Where are you from? (formal) Tu es d'où ?
    /ty ɛ du/
    Where are you from? (informal) Je suis de...
    /ʒə sɥi də/
    I am from... Où habitez-vous ?
    /u abite vu/
    Where do you live? (formal) Tu habites où ?
    /ty abit u/
    Where do you live? (informal) J'habite à...
    /ʒabit a/
    I live in... Quel âge avez-vous ?
    /kɛl ɑʒ ave vu/
    How old are you? (formal) Tu as quel âge ?
    /ty ɑ kɛl ɑʒ/
    How old are you? (informal) J'ai ____ ans.
    /ʒe __ ɑ̃/
    I am ____ years old. Parlez-vous français ?
    /paʀle vu frɑ̃sɛ/
    Do you speak French? (formal) Tu parles anglais ?
    /ty paʀl ɑ̃glɛ/
    Do you speak English? (informal) Je (ne) parle (pas)...
    /ʒə (nə) paʀl pa/
    I (don't) speak... Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends?
    /kɔ̃pʀəne vu/ /ty kɔ̃pʀɑ̃/
    Do you understand? (formal / informal) Je (ne) comprends (pas)
    /ʒə nə kɔ̃pʀɑ̃ (pa)/
    I (don't) understand Je (ne) sais (pas)
    /ʒə(n) sɛ (pa)/
    I (don't) know Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu peux m'aider ?
    /puve vu mede/ /ty pø mede/
    Can you help me? (formal / informal) Bien sûr.
    /bjɛ̃ syʀ/
    Of course. Comment?
    /kɔmɑ̃/
    What? Pardon? Où est ... / Où sont ... ?
    /u ɛ/ /u sɔ̃/
    Where is ... / Where are ... ? Voici / Voilà
    /vwasi/ /vwala/
    Here is... / Here it is. Il y a ... / Il y avait...
    /il i a/ /il i avɛ/
    There is / are... / There was / were... Comment dit-on ____ en français ?
    /kɔmɑ̃ di tɔ̃ __ ɑ̃ fʀɑ̃sɛ/
    How do you say ____ in French? Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça ?
    /kɛs kə sɛ kə sa/
    What is that? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ?
    /kɛs kil i a/
    What's the matter?
    Ça ne fait rien.
    /sa nə fɛ ʀjɛ̃/
    It doesn't matter. Qu'est-ce qui se passe ?
    /kɛs ki sə pas/
    What's happening? Je n'ai aucune idée.
    /ʒə ne okyn ide/
    I have no idea. Je suis fatigué(e) / malade.
    /ʒə sɥi fatiɡe/
    I'm tired / sick. J'ai faim / J'ai soif.
    /ʒe fɛ̃/ /ʒe swaf/
    I'm hungry / I'm thirsty. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid.
    /ʒe ʃo/ /ʒe fʀwɑ/
    I'm hot / I'm cold. Je m'ennuie.
    /ʒə mɑ̃nɥi/
    I'm bored. Ça m'est égal. / Je m'en fiche.
    /sa mɛ teɡal/ /ʒə mɑ̃ fiʃ/
    I don't care. Ne vous en faites pas. / Ne t'en fais pas.
    /nə vu ɑ̃ fɛt pa/ /nə tɑ̃ fɛ pa/
    Don't worry (formal / informal) Ce n'est pas grave.
    /sə nɛ pa gʀav/
    It's no problem. / It's alright. J'ai oublié.
    /ʒe ublije/
    I forgot. Je dois y aller.
    /ʒə dwa i ale/
    I must go. A vos souhaits ! / A tes souhaits !
    /a vo swɛ/ /a te swɛ/
    Bless you! (formal / informal) Félicitations !
    /felisitasjɔ̃/
    Congratulations! Bonne chance !
    /bɔn ʃɑ̃s/
    Good luck! C'est à vous ! / C'est à toi !
    /sɛ ta vu/ /sɛ ta twɑ/
    It's your turn! (formal / informal) Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi !
    /tɛze vu/ /tɛ twɑ/
    Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Je vous aime / Je t'aime
    /ʒə vu zɛm/ /ʒə tɛm/
    I love you (formal & plural / informal) Tenez / Tiens
    /təne/ /tjɛ̃/
    Hey / Here (formal / informal) Quoi de neuf ? / Ça boume ?
    /kwɑ də nœf/ /sa bum/
    What's new? / What's up? Pas grand chose.
    /pa gʀɑ̃ ʃoz/
    Not a whole lot.

    Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a plural you, used when speaking to more than one person.
    Also notice that some words take an extra e, shown in parentheses. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman, then the e is added in spelling; but in most cases, it does not change the pronunciation.
    To make verbs negative, French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. However, the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French, although it must appear in written French.
    :focus:

    I. ALPHABET

    a/a/
    b/be/
    c/se/
    d
    /de/
    e/ə/
    f/ɛf/
    g/ʒɜ/
    h
    /aʃ/
    i/i/
    j/ʒi/
    k/ka/
    l/ɛl/
    m
    /ɛm/
    n/ɛn/
    o
    /o/
    p/pe/
    q
    /ky/
    r
    /ɛʀ/
    s/ɛs/
    t
    /te/
    u
    /y/
    v
    /ve/
    w
    /dubləve/
    x
    /iks/
    y/igrɛk/
    z
    /zɛd/

    II. PRONUNCIATION

    French Vowels

    IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spellings
    ee vie, midi, lit, riz i, y
    [y] ee roundedrue, jus, tissu, usine u
    [e] ay blé, nez, cahier, pied é, et, final er and ez
    [ø]
    ay rounded jeu, yeux, queue, bleu eu[FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]
    [ɛ][/FONT]
    eh lait, aile, balai, reine e, è, ê, ai, ei, ais
    [œ] eh roundedsœur, œuf, fleur, beurre œu, eu
    [a]
    ah chat, ami, papa, salade a, à, â
    [[FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]ɑ[/FONT]]
    ah longer bas, âne, grâce, châteaua, â
    oo loup, cou, caillou, outil ou
    [o]
    oh eau, dos, escargot o, ô
    [[FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]ɔ[/FONT]] aw sol, pomme, cloche o
    [[FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]ə[/FONT]]
    uhfenêtre, genou, cheval e

    French semi-vowels
    IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spelling
    [w] w fois, oui, Louis oi, ou [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]
    [ɥ][/FONT]
    ew-ee lui, suisse ui
    [j] yuh oreille, Mireille y

    French nasal vowels

    IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spelling
    [[FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]ã[/FONT]] awn gant, banc, dent en, em, an, am, aon, aen
    [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode][ɛ̃][/FONT] ahn pain, vin, linge in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim, un, um, en, eng, oin, oing, oint, ien, yen, éen [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]
    [œ̃][/FONT]
    uhn brun, lundi, parfum un [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]
    [õ][/FONT]
    ohn rond, ongle, front on, om
    [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode]

    [œ̃][/FONT]
    is being replaced with [FONT=Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode][ɛ̃][/FONT] in modern French
    In words beginning with in-, a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. Otherwise, the in- prefix is pronounce een before a vowel.

    French Consonants

    ex + vowel egz examen, exercice
    ex + consonant eks exceptionnel, expression
    ch (Latin origin) sh architecte, archives
    ch (Greek origin) k orchestre, archéologie
    ti + vowel (except é) see démocratie, nation
    c + e, i, y; or ç s cent, ceinture, maçon
    c + a, o, u k caillou, car, cube
    g + e, i, y zh genou, gingembre
    g + a, o, u g gomme, ganglion
    th t maths, thème, thym
    j zh jambe, jus, jeune
    qu, final q k que, quoi, grecque
    h silent haricot, herbe, hasard
    vowel + s + vowel z rose, falaise, casino
    x + vowel z six ans, beaux arts
    final x s six, dix, soixante (these 3 only!)

    There are a lot of silent letters in French, and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant, unless that final consonant is C, R, F or L (except verbs that end in -r). ​
    Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence, so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h, slur the two together as if it were one word. S and x are pronounced as z; d as t; and f as v in these liaisons. Liaison is always made in the following cases: ​

    • after a determiner: un ami, des amis
    • before or after a pronoun: vous avez, je les ai
    • after a preceding adjective: bon ami, petits enfants
    • after one syllable prepositions: en avion, dans un livre
    • after some one-syllable adverbs (très, plus, bien)
    • after est
    It is optional after pas, trop fort, and the forms of être, but it is never made after et.
    Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases, shortening the syllables and slurring more words.

    • rapid(e)ment, lent(e)ment, sauv(e)tage /ʀapidmɑ̃/ /ɑ̃tmɑ̃/ /sovtaʒ/
    • sous l(e) bureau, chez l(e) docteur /sul byʀo/ /ʃel dɔktoʀ/
    • il y a d(e)... , pas d(e)... , plus d(e)... /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/
    • je n(e), de n(e) /ʒən/ /dən/
    • j(e) te, c(e) que /ʃt/ /skə/ (note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well)
    Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions, and all other times, it goes down at the end of the sentence.

    :horn:want some more? .. i'll post later i need to rest.. see you on lesson 2... :rockon:
     
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